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如何建設公路行業安全文化

2020-07-14
來源:中國安全生產 作者:甘肅(su)省(sheng)武(wu)威公路局(ju) 嚴明


  

   安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)文化建設(she)是(shi)解(jie)決安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管理問題的(de)(de)根本(ben)途徑(jing)。安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)文化建設(she)的(de)(de)主(zhu)要任務就是(shi)從“硬件”和“軟(ruan)件”兩個方(fang)面入手,充分考慮單位內部和外部的(de)(de)文化特質,建立包括安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)價值觀(guan)、安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)愿景、安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)使(shi)命、安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)目標等在內的(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)承(cheng)諾,引導全(quan)(quan)(quan)體職工的(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)態度(du)和安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)行為,從而減少和消(xiao)除事故。

 

深(shen)入了解安(an)全文化的概念和內涵

 

  公路(lu)(lu)行(xing)業安(an)全(quan)文(wen)化是(shi)(shi)公路(lu)(lu)職(zhi)(zhi)工(gong)(gong)在(zai)(zai)長期(qi)的(de)(de)公路(lu)(lu)養護生產(chan)實(shi)踐中逐步探索、總結、歸納、提煉形成的(de)(de),被全(quan)體(ti)職(zhi)(zhi)工(gong)(gong)接受并自覺(jue)遵循的(de)(de)、具(ju)有(you)行(xing)業特(te)色(se)的(de)(de)安(an)全(quan)價值觀、理(li)念、作(zuo)(zuo)風等(deng)。從(cong)狹義上講(jiang)安(an)全(quan)文(wen)化內涵豐富(fu),涉及(ji)面(mian)廣,既表(biao)現在(zai)(zai)公路(lu)(lu)的(de)(de)安(an)全(quan)技術發展水平上,也表(biao)現在(zai)(zai)職(zhi)(zhi)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)作(zuo)(zuo)業行(xing)為與作(zuo)(zuo)業方(fang)式等(deng)。一(yi)般(ban)情況下,把公路(lu)(lu)行(xing)業安(an)全(quan)文(wen)化定性為三個(ge)方(fang)面(mian),一(yi)是(shi)(shi)物質文(wen)化,如安(an)全(quan)標(biao)志標(biao)牌、作(zuo)(zuo)業現場的(de)(de)安(an)全(quan)標(biao)識等(deng);二是(shi)(shi)制(zhi)度文(wen)化,主要(yao)包(bao)括安(an)全(quan)規范、管理(li)

流程、制度建(jian)設等;三是觀(guan)念文化,如安全思想和安全意(yi)識(shi)等。

 

公路(lu)行業安全(quan)文化(hua)的主要(yao)功能(neng)

 

  導向功(gong)能(neng)。安全(quan)(quan)文化所倡導的(de)思想理念、規范標(biao)準、行(xing)動準則等具有一定(ding)(ding)的(de)導向性,它會引導全(quan)(quan)體(ti)干部職工向著既定(ding)(ding)的(de)目(mu)標(biao)方向前行(xing),能(neng)夠將單位的(de)整體(ti)價(jia)值轉(zhuan)化為全(quan)(quan)體(ti)職工的(de)安全(quan)(quan)責任(ren)和(he)目(mu)標(biao)。

凝聚(ju)功能(neng)。安全(quan)文化能(neng)夠(gou)將(jiang)單位與職工的價值和目標(biao)緊密地聯(lian)系在一起(qi),這個功能(neng)一旦發揮作用,將(jiang)會(hui)有效的凝聚(ju)和團結職工,使整個群體目標(biao)上同向、行動上一致。  

激勵功能。通過安(an)全文(wen)化建(jian)設,讓(rang)尊重生命上升到職工(gong)的精神追求,除了設計(ji)一些(xie)安(an)全管(guan)理的量化指(zhi)標外,還要制定一些(xie)安(an)全生產(chan)無事故的配套獎(jiang)勵措施和辦法,從而激發職工(gong)的內(nei)生動力,實現單位的安(an)全目標。

輻射功能(neng)。安全(quan)文(wen)化(hua)所倡導的(de)思(si)想觀念、行為方(fang)式一旦在干部職工(gong)中(zhong)形(xing)成,便(bian)會產生強(qiang)大的(de)影響(xiang)作用,就會在其他職工(gong)和新入職的(de)職工(gong)當中(zhong)形(xing)成示范效應,使這些員工(gong)在以(yi)后的(de)工(gong)作中(zhong)以(yi)他們為樣(yang)板和標(biao)桿。

 

公路行(xing)業安全文化建設的途徑與方法

 

  以塑(su)造(zao)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)價(jia)值觀為(wei)(wei)基準點,著力建設理(li)(li)念文(wen)(wen)化。堅持把(ba)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)文(wen)(wen)化建設作(zuo)為(wei)(wei)提(ti)(ti)升安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)(li)水(shui)平的(de)(de)有(you)效手(shou)段(duan),通(tong)(tong)過制作(zuo)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)教育(yu)微電(dian)(dian)影、安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)學習教育(yu)電(dian)(dian)子手(shou)冊(ce)等方式,把(ba)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)文(wen)(wen)化理(li)(li)念滲透到公路(lu)養護(hu)管(guan)理(li)(li)的(de)(de)各(ge)個環(huan)(huan)節,形(xing)成(cheng)單位(wei)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)發(fa)展的(de)(de)強(qiang)大助推力。以“為(wei)(wei)社(she)會提(ti)(ti)供安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)便捷的(de)(de)公路(lu)通(tong)(tong)行環(huan)(huan)境,促進單位(wei)健康協調(diao)發(fa)展”為(wei)(wei)主(zhu)旨(zhi),精(jing)心提(ti)(ti)煉有(you)針(zhen)對性(xing)、前瞻(zhan)性(xing)、激勵性(xing)、人性(xing)化,并得(de)到干部職工集體(ti)認同(tong)的(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)核心價(jia)值觀,引導他(ta)們身體(ti)力行。堅持從單位(wei)發(fa)展的(de)(de)歷史沿革中深(shen)入挖掘安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)文(wen)(wen)化的(de)(de)內涵,形(xing)成(cheng)“隱患防治抓閉(bi)合,管(guan)理(li)(li)現(xian)(xian)場零(ling)距離”的(de)(de)核心安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)理(li)(li)念,嚴抓安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)生(sheng)產(chan)的(de)(de)閉(bi)環(huan)(huan),把(ba)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)(li)的(de)(de)“關口”和“重心”直接落實(shi)到作(zuo)業現(xian)(xian)場,如果現(xian)(xian)場達不(bu)(bu)到安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)標(biao)準,寧可不(bu)(bu)生(sheng)產(chan)。樹立“隱患是事故源頭”的(de)(de)理(li)(li)念,通(tong)(tong)過發(fa)動職工及家(jia)屬(shu)撰寫家(jia)庭安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)感悟、錄制現(xian)(xian)場安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)感言等形(xing)式,培(pei)育(yu)干部職工對生(sheng)命(ming)的(de)(de)敬畏意識。

  以建(jian)立(li)風(feng)(feng)險(xian)(xian)防控(kong)責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)體(ti)(ti)(ti)系(xi)(xi)為著眼點(dian),著力建(jian)設制度(du)(du)文化。堅持將安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)理(li)念、安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)方式用(yong)制度(du)(du)的(de)(de)形式固定下來,作為人(ren)(ren)人(ren)(ren)必須(xu)遵守的(de)(de)紀律。一(yi)(yi)是加強安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)生(sheng)產(chan)責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)制。制定從(cong)(cong)主要(yao)負(fu)責(ze)(ze)(ze)人(ren)(ren)到(dao)基層養(yang)護生(sheng)產(chan)單(dan)(dan)位(wei)負(fu)責(ze)(ze)(ze)人(ren)(ren)、班站(zhan)長(chang)(chang)、一(yi)(yi)般職工的(de)(de)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)生(sheng)產(chan)責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)體(ti)(ti)(ti)系(xi)(xi)和(he)責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)清(qing)(qing)單(dan)(dan),加大安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)生(sheng)產(chan)考核力度(du)(du)和(he)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)生(sheng)產(chan)責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)追究(jiu)力度(du)(du),把安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)落(luo)實到(dao)崗位(wei)、落(luo)實到(dao)人(ren)(ren)。二是加強安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)制度(du)(du)建(jian)設。通過健全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)完善安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)的(de)(de)各類制度(du)(du),從(cong)(cong)制度(du)(du)上規范(fan)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)行為。建(jian)立(li)健全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)風(feng)(feng)險(xian)(xian)“自(zi)辨、自(zi)評、自(zi)控(kong)”和(he)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)隱患(huan)“自(zi)查(cha)、自(zi)報、自(zi)改”的(de)(de)內部運行機制,做到(dao)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)風(feng)(feng)險(xian)(xian)可辯、可防、可控(kong),安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)隱患(huan)及(ji)時登記(ji)、及(ji)時整治、及(ji)時銷號。特別要(yao)按(an)照“雙控(kong)”體(ti)(ti)(ti)系(xi)(xi)建(jian)設的(de)(de)要(yao)求,建(jian)立(li)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)生(sheng)產(chan)風(feng)(feng)險(xian)(xian)分級(ji)管(guan)控(kong)和(he)隱患(huan)排查(cha)治理(li)清(qing)(qing)單(dan)(dan),對公路長(chang)(chang)大隧道、危(wei)舊橋梁(liang)、養(yang)護工程等(deng)要(yao)害部位(wei)進行重點(dian)管(guan)控(kong),建(jian)立(li)長(chang)(chang)效(xiao)機制,對各類風(feng)(feng)險(xian)(xian)進行分級(ji)管(guan)控(kong),深入摸排高危(wei)風(feng)(feng)險(xian)(xian),列(lie)出重大風(feng)(feng)險(xian)(xian)清(qing)(qing)單(dan)(dan),制定有針對性的(de)(de)風(feng)(feng)險(xian)(xian)管(guan)控(kong)措施(shi),責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)到(dao)人(ren)(ren),避免風(feng)(feng)險(xian)(xian)失控(kong)形成事故隱患(huan)。

  以規(gui)范公路養(yang)護(hu)作業(ye)規(gui)程(cheng)為切(qie)入點,著(zhu)力建設(she)行(xing)為文化。針對公路養(yang)護(hu)作業(ye)現(xian)場布設(she)不規(gui)范導(dao)致事故的主要誘因(yin),加強對規(gui)范標準的學(xue)習培訓,抓(zhua)好公路職(zhi)工(gong)的職(zhi)業(ye)習慣,使落(luo)實安(an)全(quan)(quan)生產各項制度成為干(gan)部(bu)職(zhi)工(gong)的自覺行(xing)動。一是認真落(luo)實作業(ye)人員安(an)全(quan)(quan)告知(zhi)制度,按照《公路養(yang)護(hu)安(an)全(quan)(quan)作業(ye)規(gui)程(cheng)》(JTG H30-2015)、《道路交(jiao)通標志和標線第4部分:作(zuo)業區》(GB5768.42017)規范標準布設作業區,通(tong)過(guo)(guo)這兩項措施,規范職工(gong)(gong)行(xing)為。二(er)是用(yong)培訓教育方式規范職工(gong)(gong)行(xing)為。有計劃地開展崗前(qian)安全(quan)技術交底等活動,對(dui)每天公路養護(hu)作業過(guo)(guo)程(cheng)、工(gong)(gong)作流(liu)程(cheng)等進行(xing)視頻化記錄。把公路養護(hu)作業現(xian)場(chang)可能存(cun)在(zai)的危險隱患制做成視頻通(tong)過(guo)(guo)微信群、QQ群向干(gan)部職工發送(song),通過潛移默化,時刻讓職工警鐘長鳴(ming),要常(chang)常(chang)有“隱患在(zai)腳下,事故在(zai)身(shen)邊”的危機(ji)感和壓力感。

  以“互聯(lian)網+安(an)全(quan)(quan)”為支撐點(dian),著力建設物質文化。在公路及沿(yan)線,嚴格按(an)標(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)準化建設要求,設立各類安(an)全(quan)(quan)標(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志標(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)牌、溫馨提示(shi)牌等,規范公路養護(hu)作(zuo)(zuo)業的(de)人(ren)員(yuan)服裝、車輛、標(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志、標(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)牌和標(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)識等,做到統(tong)一、醒目、協調、美(mei)觀。同時,切實轉(zhuan)變(bian)傳統(tong)的(de)監管方(fang)式,積極(ji)利(li)用新(xin)的(de)互聯(lian)網(wang)技術(shu),大數據、云計算等,引入一些(xie)高科技的(de)安(an)全(quan)(quan)電子產品,在公路養護(hu)施工作(zuo)(zuo)業區配備高音喇叭(ba)系統(tong)、作(zuo)(zuo)業區布(bu)設影像采集系統(tong)、現場交通(tong)指揮機器(qi)人(ren)、作(zuo)(zuo)業區闖入報警系統(tong)、車載視(shi)頻(pin)監控系統(tong)、GIS地(di)圖(tu)手持終端和PAD等新(xin)型安(an)全(quan)設施(shi),有效強(qiang)化對公路養護施(shi)工作業現場的(de)實時(shi)監控。并采取在危(wei)險區(qu)域(yu)設立爆閃燈、警示標牌、安(an)全(quan)防護欄、防撞設施(shi)等,提高(gao)安(an)全(quan)通行(xing)能(neng)力。

結語

安(an)全文(wen)(wen)化建設不(bu)是一蹴而就的事(shi)情,而是一項(xiang)需要長(chang)期堅持挖掘探索的系統(tong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程。只有我(wo)們(men)在理(li)念上(shang)不(bu)斷深化、在制度上(shang)不(bu)斷強化,在職工(gong)(gong)(gong)安(an)全行為和現場操作規(gui)程上(shang)不(bu)斷優化,讓倡(chang)導的安(an)全文(wen)(wen)化理(li)念深入到職工(gong)(gong)(gong)的頭(tou)腦中(zhong),落實到具體的公路工(gong)(gong)(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作業現場上(shang),安(an)全文(wen)(wen)化才(cai)能在職工(gong)(gong)(gong)心靈上(shang)深深扎根。

 


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